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Table 2 Numerical specification values considered for simulation

From: Towards digital photon counting cameras for single-molecule optical nanoscopy

Mechanism CCD EMCCD sCMOS SPAD array
Incident photons 50-1000 50-1000 50-1000 50-1000
Photon detection efficiency 70% 90% 70% 10%-90%+
Dark noise$ 0.0005 cps* 0.001 cps 0.05 cps 20 cps$
CIC noise 0.001 cps 0.0018 cps - -
PRNU - - 0.5%** 0.5%#
DRNU - - 1%** 1%#
Dead time - - - 100 ns
EM amplifier gain - 1000x - -
Excess noise factor - √2 - -
Readout noise 6 e- 0.105 e- 1.3 e- 0
Exposure time 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms
  1. The specifications of the CCD camera are based on Hamamatsu Orca-R2. The specifications of the EMCCD camera is based on Andor iXON Ultra 897. sCMOS specifications were based on Hamamatsu Orca-flash 4.0. The SPAD array specifications are based on Powolny et al. (2013).
  2. **PRNU and dark noise variations are obtained after calibrated corrections of FPNs.
  3. #Assumed to be similar to sCMOS cameras.
  4. $Dark noise is estimated at temperatures of -50°C.
  5. *cps: counts per pixel per second.
  6. +: in steps of 10%.