Mechanism

CCD

EMCCD

sCMOS

SPAD array


Shot noise

Poisson

Poisson

Poisson

Poisson

Photon detection

Binomial

Binomial

Binomial

Binomial

Dark noise

Poisson

Poisson

Poisson

Poisson

CIC noise

Poisson

Poisson





PRNU





Normal

Normal

DRNU





Normal

Normal

Dead time







Dead time fraction

EM amplifier



Gamma





Readout noise

Normal

Normal

Normal



 The photon arrival relates to the inherent shot noise in the signal with a mean value equal to the number of photons. The chance of detecting a photon is determined by a binomial model with the number of trials equal to to the number of incoming photons, and the probability of detection equals the photon detection efficiency of the camera. Dark noise relates to randomly generated thermal noise. The clock induced charges (CIC) noise is the spurious noise generated during charge transfer in CCD and EMCCD. The photoresponse non uniformity (PRNU) is the spatial nonuniformity in sensitivity between pixels. The dark noise response nonuniformity (DRNU) is the spatial nonuniformity in noise between pixels. Deadtime fraction model for SPAD array cameras is adapted from Castelletto et al. (2007). The gamma model is used for simulation the EM gain for the EMCCD camera. A normal distribution with zero mean was adopted for the readout noise. In case of SPAD array cameras, the readout noise is zero. The fixed pattern noise in the sCMOS was not considered, assuming that noise can be easily compensated for by proper characterization of the image sensor.