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Table 1 Statistical models considered for numerical simulation with the use of CCD, EMCCD, sCMOS and SPAD array cameras

From: Towards digital photon counting cameras for single-molecule optical nanoscopy

Mechanism CCD EMCCD sCMOS SPAD array
Shot noise Poisson Poisson Poisson Poisson
Photon detection Binomial Binomial Binomial Binomial
Dark noise Poisson Poisson Poisson Poisson
CIC noise Poisson Poisson - -
PRNU - - Normal Normal
DRNU - - Normal Normal
Dead time - - - Dead time fraction
EM amplifier - Gamma - -
Readout noise Normal Normal Normal -
  1. The photon arrival relates to the inherent shot noise in the signal with a mean value equal to the number of photons. The chance of detecting a photon is determined by a binomial model with the number of trials equal to to the number of incoming photons, and the probability of detection equals the photon detection efficiency of the camera. Dark noise relates to randomly generated thermal noise. The clock induced charges (CIC) noise is the spurious noise generated during charge transfer in CCD and EMCCD. The photo-response non uniformity (PRNU) is the spatial non-uniformity in sensitivity between pixels. The dark noise response non-uniformity (DRNU) is the spatial non-uniformity in noise between pixels. Dead-time fraction model for SPAD array cameras is adapted from Castelletto et al. (2007). The gamma model is used for simulation the EM gain for the EMCCD camera. A normal distribution with zero mean was adopted for the read-out noise. In case of SPAD array cameras, the read-out noise is zero. The fixed pattern noise in the sCMOS was not considered, assuming that noise can be easily compensated for by proper characterization of the image sensor.